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Conservation of Plants and Animals Notes, Class 8, Chapter 7

Important topics covered:

  • Introduction
  • Deforestation and its causes
  • Consequences of deforestation
  • Conservation of forest and wildlife
  • Biosphere reserve
  • Flora and fauna
  • Endemic species
  • Wildlife sanctuary
  • National park
  • Red data book
  • Migration
  • Recycling of paper

Conservation:

conservation

  • For conservation and preservation of forest and wild animals, wildlife sanctuary, national park and biosphere reserve are names given to the areas.
  • The part of earth where living organism find a suitable condition to survive are said to be biosphere.
  • Varied type of living organisms present in a particular area is said to be biodiversity or biological diversity.

Deforestation:

deforestation

  • The cutting down of trees by human for their self as well as commercial purpose is said to be deforestation.
  • To meet various human demands deforestation is done.

Purpose/causes of deforestation:

Causes of Deforestation complete details

  • Procuring land for cultivation.
  • Urbanization
  • To establish livelihood.
  • To build houses and industries.
  • To make furniture.
  • Wood for fuel
  • Forest fires, droughts are some natural causes of deforestation.

Consequences of deforestation:

  • Global warming
  • Rise in pollution level
  • Degradation of underground water level
  • Decrease in rainfall
  • Severe flood and draughts
  • Degrades the nature of soil, water holding capacity and its fertility
  • The major factor behind soil erosion
  • Destruction of wildlife habitat.

Conservation of forest and wildlife:

conservation of forest and wildlife

  • The population on this earth is increasing day by day with a high pace. To establish livelihood we started deforestation and many destructive measures. These destructive measures are affecting humans in one way or the other.
  • Government has taken several steps to ensure the prevention of natural resources.
  • Wildlife sanctuaries, National parks and biosphere reserves have been made by government to conserve nature.

Biosphere:

biosphere

  • The part of earth where all living organisms live is said to be biosphere.
  • It is the narrow zone which lies between hydrosphere, troposphere and atmosphere.

Biodiversity:

biodiversity

  • A variety of living organism surviving in a particular area is called biodiversity.
  • Each type of organisms is dependent on each other and the environment.
  • Biological diversity includes a variety of plants, animals and microorganisms.

Flora and fauna:

flora and fauna

  • Flora: Total number of plants living in a particular area is said to be the flora of the area.
  • Fauna: The animals living in that area are said to be fauna of that area.

Endemic species:

sal tree endemic species

  • Those species which are found exclusively in a particular area are said to be the endemic species of that zone, state or country.
  • Wild mango and Sal are some endemic flora of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.
  • Indian giant squirrel, Bison, fly squirrel etc. are some of the endemic fauna of this area.

Protected areas:

protected area

  • To protect forests and wildlife government took several steps by making rules, policies forests and wildlife.
  • There is some specified area to protect flora and fauna along with their habitat. These area are said to be protected areas.
  • The protected area prohibits cattle grazing, cutting down trees, hunting, plantation and cultivation, illegally killing or capturing wild animals (Poaching).

Types of protected area:

The different types of protected areas which are taken care of by government are:

Wildlife Sanctuary:

wildlife-sanctuary

  • An area where animals are protected from any disturbance to them or their habitat is said to be a wildlife sanctuary.
  • Poaching or capturing an animal is strictly prohibited in wildlife sanctuary.
  • These sanctuaries also provide suitable and comfortable living conditions for the animals.
  • To protect the animals in their natural habitat in India, there are beautiful landscapes, dense forests, bushes in the delta of big river and mountain forests.
  • Corbett National Park (Uttarakhand), Ranthambore National Park (Rajasthan) are some known wildlife sanctuary in India.

National park:

national park

  • The area which is reserved for wildlife, and where wildlife can freely use the habitat and natural resources as per their need is said to be National Park.
  • Bandipur National Park, Satpura National Park etc. are some well-known national parks of India.

Biosphere reserve:

biosphere reserve

  • A large area of protected area for conservation of wildlife, plant & animal resources and traditional life of the tribes living in that area is said to be Biosphere reserves.
  • These areas have the main role in conserving biodiversity.
  • They also protect the culture of a particular area.

Red Data Book:

red data book

  • The book which contains the list of all the endangered plants and animals.
  • There is separate individual book for plants, animals and other species.
  • International Union for the Conservation of Nature Resources (IUCN) maintains this book.
  • In this book, there is the most updated information of the global conservation status of species.

Migration:

migration

  • The seasonal movement of different animals and birds from one place to another for getting better breeding place, climate, food etc. temporarily or permanently are said to be migration.
  • Some migratory birds cover long distances to reach another land and lay their eggs.
  • Every year they fly to avoid harsh and inhospitable weather conditions in their natural habitat.

Recycling of paper:

recycling paper

  • Papers are made of pulp which is obtained from plants.
  • As the use of paper increases the demand for trees also increases.
  • Cutting of trees on a large scale will cause danger to the biosphere.
  • To make one tonne of paper 17 full grown trees are required.
  • We have to use paper in a better way.
  • Paper can be recycled again and again.
  • We must recycle the used papers and use them again in order to reduce the cutting of trees.
  • This play a crucial role in the conservation of plants and animals.

Reforestation / Afforestation:

The process of replanting trees on the deforested land on a large scale is called reforestation.

There are many ways through which reforestation can be gained:

  • Planting same type of trees which are deforested.
  • We should plant large number of trees than that are being cut.
  • If the deforested land is kept unused for a long time then it again forms the forest.
  • There should be more laws and policies of government to conserve forest.

FAQ on Conservation of Plants and Animals

What is flora and fauna conservation?

Total number of plants living in a particular area is called flora and total number of animals residing in a particular area are called Fauna. Plants and animals play an important role in maintaining the existence of biodiversity in the world. To protect the plants and animals in a particular area which is the main source of life on this earth is said to be conservation of flora and fauna.

What should we do to protect and conserve plants and animals?

Plants and animals need to be conserved because they are the basis of existence of biodiversity on this earth. Every species on this earth are dependent on each other for various cause like food, breathe etc. Plants depend on animals for carbon dioxide whereas animals depend on plants for oxygen and all the necessary natural resources. The existence of both keeps the life on this earth in continuation.

How can we conserve animals?

There are many ways through which we can conserve animals. They are:

  • Afforestation: By planting trees and conserving forests the wildlife where most animals reside.
  • Wildlife sanctuaries: By assigning it animals can be protected from any disturbance to them or their habitat.
  • National parks: Through it wildlife can freely use the habitat and natural resources as per their need. Thus conserves animals.
  • Biosphere reserves: These also helps to conserve animals.
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