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Improvement in Food Resources Class 9 Notes, Ch – 15 CBSE Study Material

Important Topics Covered in CBSE Notes:

  • Green Revolution
  • White revolution
  • Improvement in Crop Yields
  • Manure
  • Fertilizers
  • Irrigation
  • Cropping Patterns
  • Crop protection
  • Storage of grains
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Cattle farming
  • Poultry farming
  • Egg and broiler production
  • Fish Production
  • Bee Keeping

About Food Resources:

  • To sustain life on this planet every living organism need food.
  • Food provides everything what we need for our body development i.e. supplies proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.
  • The main source of food is agriculture and animal husbandry.

Green revolution:

  • The use of modern technology, fertilizers, improved seeds, proper irrigation to increase the food production in many countries is named as green revolution.

White revolution:

  • The programme which revolutionized the production of milk in India and made it self-sufficient in the production of milk production is named as white revolution.

Blue and Yellow Revolution:

  • To enhance the production of fish blue revolution was introduced.
  • And to increase oil production yellow revolution came to light.
  • More we will read in higher section of improvement in food resources notes.

Type of crops:

Different type of crops are listed below with their uses:

  1. Cereals: Wheat, rice, barley, maize etc. are cereals. Also, they provide us carbohydrates.
  2. Pulses: Pea, gram, lentil etc. are some examples of pulses. They are the main source of protein.
  3. Seeds: Some plants contains seed which is edible. Soybean, groundnut, sesame, castor, mustard, sunflower etc. are the examples of edible oil seeds. They are the main source of fats.
  4. Vegetables, Spices and Fruits: Carrot, orange, cinnamon, spinach etc. are some examples of such kind. It acts as almost all the energy sources i.e. vitamins, minerals and small amounts of Carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
  5. Fodder crops: Berseem, sudan grass, oats etc. are some examples of fodder crops.

Crop Season:

Different crops need different environmental conditions (such as temperature, climate) to grow. They are:

Crop seasons



Kharif  Season

Rainy (from June to October)

Gram, Pigeon, paddy, Soyabean etc.

Rabi Season

Winter (from November to April)

Wheat, mustard, linseed etc.

Method to increase crop yield:

There are several measures which are required to enhance crop yield. They are:

Crop variety improvement:

Several factors which can help in improving crop variety are:

  • Quality of Seeds: Seeds should be good and healthy.
  • Quality of soil: The soil property factor also contributes
  • Hybridization: The method of cross breeding of two different type of crops to produce a crop with new variety with good properties of both crops.
  • Hybridization are of three types:




Between two different varieties of a plant


Bred between two species belonging to same genus

Inter Generic

These breds between different crops of different genus.


  • Genetic Improvement: When genes of a crop are modified so that desired properties are retained and undesired properties are suppressed.

Need of Crop variety improvement:

  • The crop from these seeds should have high yield.
  • Quality improvement: The quality of crops means the storage of minerals, protein, vitamin in it should be high. Preserving tendency of vegetables and crops should be high.
  • Crop resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses: The resistance here means the ability of crops to fight from flood, draught, heat, cold etc. These are the abiotic stress.
  • To shorten maturity period of crops: Farmers will be able to grow a variety of crops in single year.
  • Prevents from loss of crops at the time of harvesting.
  • As improved characteristics of crop in terms of the right height, weight, lodging, resistance and high yield.

Crop Production Management:

Farmers have low income so it is needed that with a little income they should achieve higher standard of crop production.

  • No cost Production
  • Low-cost Production
  • Nutrition Management
  • Irrigation
  • Cropping patterns

1. Nutrition management:

  • Macronutrients are the nutrients that are required in large quantities.
  • Micronutrients are the nutrients that are required in small quantities by the plants.
  • The essential nutrients required for plants are: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, Sulfur, Boron, Chlorine etc.
  • Nutrients provided to plants by ecosystem are:




Carbon, oxygen


Hydrogen, oxygen


nitrogen, phosphorous,
potassium, sulfur,

(ii) Micronutrients:

Iron, manganese, boron,
copper, chlorine.

2. Manure and fertilizers:

To increase the yield of crops by providing all the essential nutrients to the plants by the use of manure and fertilizers.





Manure is a natural material,
obtained by dead decaying
plant and animal waste,
which is applied to the
soil to enhance its fertility.

Fertilizer is an artificial or natural
substance which can be added
to the soil to improve its fertility
and increase the productivity.


Commonly prepared in fields

Generally prepared in factories


Comparatively less rich in plant

Rich in plant nutrients.


It provides humus to the soil.

It does not provide humus to the soil.


Plants slowly absorbs it.

Plants quickly absorbs it


It is economical

It is cost efficient.

Side effect

It improves the physical condition
of soil. Also it has no any side effect.

It causes harm to the living
organism present in the soil.

3. Irrigation:

  • There are variety of sources of water in India. As for crop production a farmer can’t be solely depend upon rain water. For better crops one need to ensure proper irrigation to their crop.
  • We use different types of irrigation system to ensure better system of irrigation.
  • These cropping systems are beneficial in insect, pest and weed control besides providing nutrients.
  • Most agriculture in India is dependent on timely monsoons and sufficient rainfall spread through most of the growing season. However, the extra water required by crops is met through irrigation.

Sources of Irrigation:

There are many sources of irrigation. They are:

  • Wells:
    Underground water is used for irrigation by the means of dug wells from which water is carried out to the fields.
  • Canal System:
    Field is irrigated by canal system which is a part of river distributaries separated in branch canals and carry water to the field.
  • Rainwater harvesting: Rainwater is collected in reservoir dug in ground. This water recharges the underground water as well as used for irrigation purpose.
  • Watershed management:
    Small check dams are built up in watershed areas to increase percolation of water into ground, reduce flow of rainwater to prevent soil erosion.
  • River lift system:
    Water is directly drawn from river and used for irrigation by this method.

Crop Pattern:

There are different patterns of cultivating crops for better yield. They are:

  • Mixed cropping
  • Inter cropping
  • Crop rotation

Mixed cropping:

  • When we grow 2 or more crops in a same field then it is called mixed cropping.
  • Wheat and gram, wheat and mustard, groundnut and sunflower etc. together in pairs are example of mixed cropping.


  • Two or more crops are grown on the same field but it follows definite pattern as one type of crop in a row.
  • Soyabean and maize, bajra and lobia together in pairs are cropped in a definite pattern.

Crop rotation:

  • In the same field when different crops are being grown one after the other is said to be crop rotation.
  • Same crops when grown in the field same field extracts same nutrients everytime which causes loss in fertility of that crop itself.
  • When crop rotation is followed then the fertility of soil maintained as well as pest and weeds are controlled.

Crop Protection:

The protection of crop against harmful factors (weeds, pests and diseases) is called crop protection.

Crops can be protected by:

  • Pest control during growth of crops
  • Well storage of grains


  • Pests harms and cuts parts of the crops like fruits, stems and leaves.
  • They can also pierce roots and stems of the plants.
  • They destroy the cell sap by sucking them

Pest control during growth of crops:

  • To kill the germs pesticides and insecticides are sprayed on the fields.
  • To ensure safety against pests crops should be checked time to time.
  • To ensure insect management in the fields, effective cropping methods such as crop rotation should be followed.
  • Sometimes summer ploughing is also used to destroy the weeds and pests.
  • Thus, read and revise improvement in food resources notes.

Storage of Grains:

There are several factors which are responsible for crop un-wellness as well as its loss. They are:

  • Biotic Factors: Fungi, insects, rodents, bacteria, rodents are biotic factors that harm grain storage.
  • Abiotic factors: Temperature change, moisture etc. are the abiotic factors.

Prevention from storage loss:

  • Storage places should be properly maintained and cleaned.
  • Before storing the grain clean it properly.
  • Drying the grains in sunlight as well as in the shade before storing it is beneficial.

Animal Husbandry:

  • The scientific management of animal livestock in a controlled, selective environment by providing them care for healthy living is said to be animal husbandry.
  • As our population is increasing tremendously we need to improve the livestock of animals. There is increasing demand of eggs, meat and milk.
  • Milch animals (dairy animals) are the milk producing females.
  • Draught animals are the one used for farm and labour.

Some common terminology related to Animal Husbandry:

  • Lactation period: The period of milk production between birth of newbie and next pregnancy is called lactation period.
  • Poultry Farming: To borrow eggs and meat poultry farming is done. Meat and egg is the main source of protein.
  • Broilers: The birds which are grown only for the purpose of obtaining meat are called broilers. These birds can be used after 6-8 weeks after their birth.
  • Layers: Those birds which are grown only for the purpose of getting eggs are said to be layers.


  • Mostly broilers & layers are cross breeded.
  • Breeding is done to enhance some properties. They are:
    (i) Quality and quantity of chicks should be better every time.
    (ii) Low maintenance is required.
    (ii) As in poultry farms feeding cost is the highest so they need to produce dwarf broilers for meat which decreases their cost by 30%.

Fish production:

  • One of the best source of protein in our diet is fish.
  • When naturally living fishes from rivers and ponds are captured then it is said to be capture fishing.
  • When fishes of desired variety are cultivated in fixed area with ultimate care are called culture fishing (aquaculture).
  • Management and production of cartilaginous and bony fishes such as pomphret, tuna etc. are called finned fish production.
  • The production of prawns or mollusks like shell fish is called finned fish production.


In bee farms or apiaries bee farming is performed.

Beekeeping also acts as a means of generating additional income to farmers because:

  • We are much familiar that honey is a widely used product.
  • Beekeeping is not very expensive
  • Along with honey they also generate wax.
  • Read and learn improvement in food resources notes.


  • Bee-hive is the nest build by bees to live.
  • There are 10,000 to 60,000 bees in a hive.

The bees divide themselves into 3 different castes and live together in a colony:

  • Queen bee: The queen bee is functional as well as fertile female of all. In the colony she is the supreme bee.
  • Drone bees: They maintain the hive and are the smaller male bees of the colony.
  • Worker bees: They are the most active members of the hive. Different functions are performed by worker bees such as collecting pollens and nectar, constructing the comb, cleaning the cells of the hive. They are smallest in size.
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