On this planet earth, we have classified two types of things. One is living things and the other is non-living things. The factors which decide whether the thing is living or non-living depends upon the movement. Either the movement is visible to our naked eye or not but it is there. Movement is described in terms of physical movement to molecular movement. Nature has created living organisms as well-organised structures, not only the physical shape but up to molecular level. They are composed of tissues, tissues have cells, cells have smaller components in them, and so on. So living creatures must keep repairing and maintaining their structures to keep continuous movement throughout. If these structures break then the living creature will no longer live. Since all these structures are made up of molecules, they must keep moving molecules by life processes. In this section of life processes notes for class 10 we will study deeply about each topic.
The processes which together perform the maintenance job to keep living things alive are life processes. To maintain and repair the movements, living organisms perform 6 life processes which keep them alive. They are:
- Nutrition is the process of getting energy that is obtained from food consumed or the process of consuming the proper amount of nourishment and energy.
- This is an important life processes process which helps living organisms to obtain their energy from various types of sources.
- The things or source from which we obtain nutrition is called nutrients.
- Different living beings have the different mode of nutrition.
- Plants are autotrophs. Nutrition in plants is autotrophic mode of nutrition. Green plants and some bacteria follow the autotrophic mode of nutrition.
- The process of making food by plants is called photosynthesis.
- Animals depend on plants and other animals for food. So they are called heterotrophs.
- The heterotrophs survival depends directly or indirectly on autotrophs. Animals and fungi are heterotrophic organisms.
- The mode of nutrition in animals are heterotrophic mode of nutrition. Human beings follow the holozoic mode of nutrition.
- Respiration is simply inhalation and exhalation of air also called breathing.
- It is one of the most important life processes.
- At all, the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which oxygen is conveyed to tissues and cells, and the oxidation products, carbon dioxide and water, are given off.
- During the process of respiration, complex organic compounds such as glucose are broken down to provide energy in the form of ATP.
- ATP is used to provide energy for other reactions in the cell.
- Respiration is of two types: aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.
- In aerobic process, the release of energy is much greater than in the anaerobic process.
- Transportation is also a vital life process of living organism.
- In case of plants, raw materials are first collected at leaves and they are transported from roots to leaves by transportation system of plants.
- Xylem, the pathway that carries moves water and minerals obtained from the soil.
- Phloem transports food obtained from photosynthesis from the leaves where they are synthesized to other parts of the plant.
- In case of animals, energy is to be carried to every part of the body.
- Plasma (blood consists of a fluid medium called plasma in which the cells are suspended) transports food, carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes in dissolved form.
- Oxygen is carried by the red blood cells.
- Blood also transports many other substances like salts.
- It is the biological process by which new offspring are produced from their parents.
- Reproduction is also a life process of all living beings.
- Each individual living organism exists as the result of reproduction.
- There are two types of reproduction: asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.
- Asexual reproduction: When there are only single parents involved in producing their offsprings.
- Sexual reproduction: When two parents are involved in reproducing their own offsprings.
- Metabolism is the process by which our body converts food into energy.
- It provides energy to our body by the complex biochemical process in which calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy.
- In this chemical process, there are different types of chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells in an organism.
- It also helps in conversion of food to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and some carbohydrates.
- It is also involved in the elimination of nitrogenous wastes.
- There are two types of metabolism i.e. catabolism and anabolism.
- Catabolism: The process which involves breaking down of organic matter, thus energy is released is catabolism. Example: the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate.
- Anabolism: The process which involves building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids also energy is stored for further requirements. This process consumes energy.
- Removal of toxic and waste substances from the body of living things is excretion.
- Plants produce waste products and excrete in the form of gases.
- During photosynthesis, oxygen is produced as a by-product.
- During respiration carbon dioxide is released.
- Both gases diffuse through stomata of leaves.
- Animals being a more complex structure than plants have a special excretory system.
- Excretory system of animals consists of 2 kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra.
- The blood is filtered by a structural unit called nephron present in the kidney.
- After filtration in kidney, pure blood moves back to other parts of the body.
- The extracted waste products from blood are passed into the ureter.
- Urinary bladder collects urine (waste material + water), which is excreted out through the urethra.
|Nutrition in plants||Nutrition in animals|
|Respiration in plants||Human respiratory system|
|Transportation in plants||Human circulatory system|