Tissues Notes Class 9
In last section, we briefed the fundamental units of life notes. This article deals with tissues notes in science which includes Meristematic tissue and permanent tissues. Further it also include epidermis, cork, parenchyma, sclereids, fibres, xylem and phloem. Tissues notes class 9 follows NCERT curriculum which benefits CBSE students for revision during exams.
- Group of cells in multicellular organisms having similar functions are said to be
- Cells of a tissue have similar origin and structure.
- Tissues provide division of labour in multicellular organisms.
- When compared to unicellular organism any work is done more efficiently in multicellular organisms because different groups of cells are specialized in doing different functions.
- Tissues notes class 9 deals with all topics included in CBSE NCERT curriculum.
There are two Kinds of tissues:
- Plant tissues
- Animal Tissues
- Plant tissues provides plant structural strength so they are called supportive tissues.
- These supportive tissues are dead and thus provides mechanical strength and need less maintenance.
Here we have provided you with CBSE class 9 biology notes. In this section tissues notes class 9 is there.
Classification of plant tissues:
There are mainly two types of plant tissues. They are:
- Meristematic tissue
- Permanent tissue.
- These tissues are actively involved in growth in plants.
- Cells present in these tissues divide and reproduce new cells.
- Meristematic tissues have thin-walled completely arranged immature cells.
- They have thin cellulose walls, dense cytoplasm and prominent nuclei.
- There are no inter-cellular spaces.
- Large number of cell organelle are present.
- These are present at root and shoot tips.
Tissues notes class 9 will help you to get better exams in CBSE board exams.
Functions of Meristematic tissues:
- These tissues act as a parent tissues where all the other tissues originates.
- Also, these participate in providing growth by generating new cells.
- New cell generation heals up the site of injury in plants.
- From tissues notes class 9 you can separate important topics for exam purpose.
Classification of Meristematic tissues:
There are mainly three types of meristematic tissues:
- Apical Meristems
- Lateral Meristems
- Intercalary Meristems
- Present in roots and shoots.
- Apical meristems are mainly responsible for primary growth in length.
- Cell division in these tissues provides elongation.
- Present at lateral side of roots and stems (at cork cambium)
- These are responsible for increment of girth (diameter) of root and stem of plant.
- Lateral meristems are thus involved in Secondary growth.
- It helps in formation of vascular tissues.
- Present at base of leaves or internodes.
- Apical meristems leaves it behind while providing growth to plants.
- These helps to increase the size of leaves.
- Considered to provide primary growth.
- The cells which have no more capability to divide forms Permanent tissues.
- These tissues are either dead or living.
- Shape, thickness and other measures are fixed.
- The reproduction, division or differentiation of cells by meristematic tissues leads to formation of permanent tissues.
- If the cell of a meristmatic tissues divide to a certain extent they are fully specialized in doing special function. Learn tissues notes class 9 easily.
Classification of Permanent tissues:
There are mainly two types of permanent tissues. It is important to be studied in tissues notes class 9. They are:
- Simple permanent tissue
- Complex permanent tissue
Simple permanent tissue:
- Structurally or functionally similar types of cells constitutes simple permanent tissues.
- Some layers of cell beneath the epidermis are generally simple permanent tissue.
- Classification of tissues is important in tissues notes class 9.
There are two types of simple permanent tissues:
- Protective tissues
- Supportive tissues
- These helps in protecting different layers.
- Protective tissues mainly consists of epidermis and cork.
- Here in tissues notes class 9 is this much. Moreover, you will read in higher section.
- It is a thick outermost protective layer of some plant organs.
- Single layer of cells constitutes epidermis.
- These have no intercellular spaces and are flattened and elongated.
- Epidermis consists of living cells.
- Small pores in leaves called stomata is present in epidermis.
- The epidermis layer for dry region plants are thicker to prevent excess loss of water.
Function of epidermis:
- It prevents the plant from any external infection.
- Cuticle present in the epidermis prevents water loss from leaves.
- During respiration and photosynthesis, the stomata of leaves help in exchange of gases.
- Transpiration also occurs through stomata.
- Read tissues notes class 9 as revision material.
- Cork cells are dead cells having very thick walls.
- They don’t have intercellular spaces.
- When plants become older and increase in girth then cork appear at the periphery of roots and stems.
- Cell walls in cork leaves waxy substance called suberin which makes them impermeable to gases and water.
- Resins and tannins are quietly filled in Cork cells.
Function of cork:
- As a protective tissue, it prevents plant from infection, desiccation or mechanical injury.
- Cork does not catch fire easily, so it acts as insulation and shock absorber in plants.
- Nowadays these corks are used to make sports item such as shuttle corks, cricket balls etc.
- CBSE notes are required during exams. Here you can learn tissues notes class 9.
- These tissues play supportive role to plants.
- Further, read tissues notes class 9 for more.
There are three types of supportive tissues:
- Parenchyma is a fundamental tissue.
- It has thin cell walls irregularly thickened at corners.
- They have no intercellular space.
- Its main role is to store food.
- They are oval or spherical in structures.
- Cell walls consist of pectin and cellulose.
- Chlorophyll is generally not there in parenchyma. Those parenchyma containing chloroplasts are collenchyma and performs photosynthesis.
- CBSE NCERT based notes require you to learn the tissues notes class 9.
Function of parenchyma:
- Parenchyma helps in bending of stems and leaves.
- Parenchyma has a large vacuole for food and water storage.
- Idioblast is the parenchyma which stores excretory product such as gums, resin, oils, tannin etc.
- When it contains chlorophyll then performs photosynthesis.
- If the plant is hydrophytic then a type of parenchyma ‘aerenchyma’ provides buoyancy.
- It is made up of living cell and elongated cells.
- It is also called mechanical tissue.
- Collenchyma has thin cell walls but thick at the corners.
- There is no intercellular space.
- They have large vacuoles.
- They have small nucleus.
- These tissues are found below the epidermis in leaves and stem.
- Further in tissues notes class 9 read the specific differences tables.
Function of collenchyma:
- Collenchyma provides flexibility to different parts of the plant.
- It also provides mechanical strength to plants.
- Sclerenchyma is composed of dead cells.
- It is made up of thick cell walls containing little protoplasm.
- No intercellular space is present.
- These tissues are mainly present at veins of leaves or in hard covering of seeds and nuts.
- Coconut husk is a better example to see the presence of sclerenchyma tissues.
Function of sclerenchyma:
- It makes part of plant hard.
- Also, it provides mechanical strength.
- Learn and revise CBSE tissues notes class 9.
Complex Permanent tissues:
- Complex permanent tissues are made up of different types of cells which work together as a unit.
- These tissues are also responsible for transportation of water, organic materials and minerals.
- Thus, they are also called conducting vascular tissue.
- Together xylem and phloem composes vascular bundles.
Types of Complex Permanent tissues:
There are two types of complex permanent tissues:
- It is a vascular mechanical tissue.
- Tabular passages are formed by its walls.
- It consists of tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma and xylem fibers.
- These are long elongated cells with tapered ending.
- Also, they are dead cells.
- They are mainly involved in conduction of water and minerals.
- It has pipe-like structure
- They are also dead cells having lignified thick cell walls.
- Cell wall does not contain its upper and lower portion.
- These are cylindrical tube like structure.
- They conduct water from these tubes.
Read each topic in detail at tissues notes class 9.
- They store starch and nutrients.
- They are living cells.
- They are dead fibres.
- It has narrow cavity which provides mechanical support.
- Xylem rings are the rings present at the trunk of trees. By this we can determine the age of tree. Further you will read components of phloem in tissues notes class 9.
- It transports prepared food from the leaves to every part of plants.
- It also contains parenchymatous as well as sclerenchymatous
- It doesn’t perform mechanical function.
Components of Phloem:
There are 4 different components of Phloem:
- Sieve tubes
- Companion cells
- Phloem parenchyma
- Phloem fibers
- These are tube like structures with perforated walls.
- Also, they have thin cell walls.
- It contains cytoplasm.
- Nucleus and other parts are absent in sieve cells.
- Protein present in sieve cells helps to repair itself.
- These cells carries food and nutrients.
- Here tissues notes class 9 is with all the essential CBSE topics.
- It has prominent nuclei as well as dense cytoplasm.
- As Sieve and companion cells arise from same mother cells so they are called sister cells.
- It acts as food storage to plants.
- It also helps in conduction of food in radial direction.
- Sieve tubes get mechanical support through it.
- They also have a thick cell wall.
- As we know that animal is a complex multicellular organism.
- Blood, muscles are some tissues in animals.
Types of animal Tissues in Class 9 biology tissue notes:
There are four types of animal tissues:
- Epithelial tissues
- Connective tissues
- Muscular tissues
- Nervous tissues
- Epithelium is the skin which protects our body from external environment.
- It is composed of single layer of cells.
- We can observe epithelium in the inner lining of our mouth, Lining of blood vessels.
- There is no intercellular spaces in the epithelial tissues.
- Fibrous basement membrane separates it from other tissues.
- Learn tissues notes class 9 to score better in exams.
Function of epithelial tissue:
- It protects the organs on which it provides covering.
- Different organs are separated by epithelium.
- It smoothen the passage of food by secreting mucus.
- Also, it acts as selectively permeable membrane for our body and its organs.
- In small intestine the epithelium increase the surface area for absorption.
Types of Epithelial tissues:
There are four different types of epithelial tissues on the basis of shape and function:
- Squamous epithelium
- Cuboidal epithelium
- Columnar epithelium or Glandular epithelium
- Ciliated epithelium
Cells are arranged like
Vertical section appears
Finger like structures are
These cells may be cuboidal
Shape of cells
Surface view are polygonal.
Cube like cells are present.
Tall, cylindrical pillar like structures.
Cuboidal or columnar.
Place of presence
It is present as the nose,
In kidney tubules, salivary
At inner surface of stomach,
In lining of trachea, nasal
/Protects the inner parts
/It prevents wear and
/Checks the entry of germs
/Provides site for diffusion
/Organs get mechanical
/Site of secretion of enzymes
/Microvilli present which
/Gastric juices are secreted
/Gives mechanical support
/Provides movement of
/Zygote also moves towards
/It keeps trachea clean.
- Different organs of our body are connected through connective tissues.
- Also, it connects bone to bone and bone to muscles.
- Connective tissue cells, fibers and intercellular medium are present in these tissues
- The cells of these tissues are widely spaced and forms intercellular matrix.
- These matrix may be jelly like, fluid and is dense.
- More likely you can save your previous time by reading tissues notes class 9.
Functions of connective tissues:
- In the organs, connective tissue binds different tissues together.
- The structural framework and mechanical support are provided to different tissues by connective tissues.
- It is also involved in repair of cells, storage of fats etc.
Types of connective tissues:
There are a total of five types of connective tissues:
- Fluid connective tissue
- Areolar connective tissue
- Dense connective tissue
- Adipose connective tissue
- Skeletal tissue
Fluid connective tissue:
There are different fluid connective tissues in our bodies. They are in the tabular form in tissues notes class 9. Take a look at it.
Blood and lymph
Blood is a fluid connective tissue which
55% of blood is plasma containing water,
It contains haemoglobin which helps in
It protects our body from bacteria and viruses.
Areolar connective tissue:
- These tissues are distributed throughout the body.
- They are present in the spaces present in the organs i.e. between skin and muscles, nerves, bone marrow. So it is also called packing tissue.
- There are two types of fibers contained in it. They are: White and yellow collagen fibers.
- It also paces the process of diffusion of oxygen and nutrients from blood vessels.
- In injury it helps in tissue repair also prevents from foreign toxins.
- The more you indulge the more you will learn in tissues notes class 9.
Dense connective tissues:
- It is termed as fibrous connective tissue.
- It is the primary component of ligaments and tendons.
- Its flexibility is quite less but the strength is high.
Adipose connective tissue:
- These are round and oval shaped.
- It is filled with fat globules.
- It is present near the heart, below the skin, eyeballs and in the brain.
- It insulates our body so that less heat escapes from the body.
- It also acts as the storage of fats.
- In vertebrates, the endoskeleton forms with the help of skeletal tissues.
- It is hard connective tissue.
- Both cartilages and bones are present in it.
Difference between Bones and cartilages:
The difference between bones and cartilages are given in table as per tissues notes class 9. Take a look at it.
Bones are hard.
Cartilages are soft.
They are porous.
They are non-porous
It contain blood vessels
It doesn’t contain blood vessels.
The spaces (matrix) contain protein
The matrix are composed of protein.
Larger bones have bone marrow in it.
These are solid structures without
Bone frames a body.
Cartilage provides flexibility to
Bones being hard protects our
At joints it smoothen body surface.
- Muscle fibers are elongated cells which constitutes to form muscular tissues.
- Muscle tissues are involved in movement of body by contraction and relaxation.
- Read tissues notes class 9 to score better in exams.
Types of muscular tissues:
There are three types of muscular tissues:
Uni-nucleated and spindle shaped.
Uni-nucleated and branched.
Muscle fibres are multinucleated
Responsible for perielastic movement
Rhythmic contraction and relaxation
It gets tird and needs rest.
Present in walls of intestine, urinary
They lie between striated and
Each fiber enclosed by thin memebrane.
- Nervous system of an organism is made up of nervous tissue.
- The functional unit in nervous system is called neuron or nerve cells.
- Brain, spinal cord and nerves contains nervous tissue.
- These cells carry impulse over great distance at very high speed.
- A neuron has cell body with a nucleus and cytoplasm.
- From cytoplasm long thin hair- like parts arise called
- Dendrons diversifies with the end temperd as
- It recepts and transmits the information between different parts of the body.
- The dendrites receive impulses and the axon transfers impulses throughout the body.
This article provided you with the tissues notes class 9. You can revise it whenever you want. class 9 biology tissues notes include plants and animal tissues notes.
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